Acute otitis media in adults
- Eustachian tube obstruction caused by an upper respiratory infection is the usual cause.
- If the middle-ear infection becomes prolonged the patient should be referred to an ENT specialist for ruling out a nasopharyngeal tumour.
- Barotrauma (e.g. during diving) (1) leads to serous otitis media where sterile secretion is found in the middle ear.
- Radiotherapy of the pharynx may predispose to functional disorder of the Eustachian tube and middle-ear infections.
Symptoms and clinical findings
- Ear pain and sensation of a block in the ear
- The eardrum is opaque or cloudy and usually red (see Otitis media in children (Otitis media in children: definition, epidemiology and diagnosis)).
- The mobility of the eardrum is impaired when examined with a pneumatic otoscope of sufficient size. Tympanometry (3) is a reliable aid in diagnosis.
- The most common causative bacteria in acute media are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. In rare cases, group A streptococci may also be found; these may cause sensorineural hearing impairment and a more severe clinical picture.
- Amoxicillin 750 mg twice daily or penicillin V 1.5–2.0 million IU twice daily for one week are recommended as the first-line drugs.
- Alternative drugs include amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, azithromycin, clarithromycin or second-generation cephalosporins.
- Complications of acute otitis media are rare in adults. Tympanocentesis is indicated in prolonged or severe otitis media, or if a sample for bacterial culture is needed (e.g immunocompromised patients).
- Serous otitis media caused by barotrauma can be treated with vasoconstrictor drugs and by aeration of the middle ear (4) and, if necessary, by tympanocentesis. Antibiotics are indicated only if a secondary infection is suspected.
- An ENT specialist should be consulted if the patient has vertigo or intensive tinnitus, the general condition has deteriorated, the pain is intensive or there is a suspicion of mastoiditis (Acute mastoiditis).
- There may be fluid in the middle ear for several weeks after the infection. An adult may experience the blocking of the ear and the hearing loss as very annoying. The block may be relieved by ventilation of the middle ear (Valsalva manoeuvre: the pressure in the nasopharynx is increased by exhaling forcefully while keeping the nostrils and the mouth closed).
- A follow-up visit should be scheduled after about one month in order to check the patient’s clinical condition and to verify middle ear ventilation and hearing improvement.
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