A crying infant – Related resources

Cochrane reviews

  • Manipulative therapies might possibly reduce crying in infants with colic. However, there may be a significant placebo effect present [Evidence Level: D].
  • There is insufficient evidence on the effect of pain-relieving agents for infantile colic [Evidence Level: D].
  • Breastfeeding, non-nutritive sucking-related interventions, and rocking or holding are effective in reducing pain in infants undergoing acutely painful procedures. Breastfeeding appears to be more effective than other methods [Evidence Level: A].


  • Douglas P, Hill P. Managing infants who cry excessively in the first few months of life. BMJ 2011;343():d7772.  [PMID:22174332]
  • Perry R, Hunt K, Ernst E. Nutritional supplements and other complementary medicines for infantile colic: a systematic review. Pediatrics 2011;127(4):720-33.  [PMID:21444591]
  • Lucassen PL, Assendelft WJ, Gubbels JW, van Eijk JT, van Geldrop WJ, Neven AK. Effectiveness of treatments for infantile colic: systematic review. BMJ 1998 May 23;316(7144):1563-9.  [PMID:9596593]
  • Garrison M, Christakis A. A systematic review of treatments for infant colic. Pediatrics, Jul 2000;106:184-190
  • Barr R, Hopkins B, Green J (editors). Crying as s sign, a symptom and a signal. Cambridge University Press 2000. Mac Keith Press, London.
  • Huhtala V, Lehtonen L, Heinonen R, Korvenranta H. Infant massage compared with crib vibrator in the treatment of colicky infants. Pediatrics 2000 Jun;105(6):E84.  [PMID:10835097]
  • Kirjavainen J, Kirjavainen T, Huhtala V, Lehtonen L, Korvenranta H, Kero P. Infants with colic have a normal sleep structure at 2 and 7 months of age. J Pediatr 2001 Feb;138(2):218-23.  [PMID:11174619]
  • Kirjavainen J, Lehtonen L, Kirjavainen T, Kero P, 24-Hour Ambulatory Sleep Polygraphy study. Sleep of excessively crying infants: a 24-Hour Ambulatory Sleep Polygraphy study. Pediatrics 2004 Sep;114(3):592-600.  [PMID:15342826].
  • St James-Roberts I, Alvarez M, Csipke E, Abramsky T, Goodwin J, Sorgenfrei E. Infant crying and sleeping in London, Copenhagen and when parents adopt a "proximal" form of care. Pediatrics 2006 Jun;117(6):e1146-55.  [PMID:16740816]
  • St James-Roberts I. Infant crying and sleeping: helping parents to prevent and manage problems. Prim Care 2008 Sep;35(3):547-67, viii.  [PMID:18710670]

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