Acute heart failure and pulmonary oedema – Related resources
There may not be difference in the rapidity of symptom relief between intravenous nitrate vasodilator therapy and alternative interventions in patients with acute heart failure syndromes [Evidence Level: C].
Other evidence summaries
Bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) noninvasive ventilation may not offer any substantial clinical advantage over continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, regardless of whether BiPAP support is titrated, or whether patients have marked hypercapnia [Evidence Level: C].
Levosimendan does not reduce mortality at 180 days or affect secondary clinical outcomes compared with dobutamine in patients with acute decompensated heart failure [Evidence Level: A].
McMurray JJ, Adamopoulos S, Anker SD et al. ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2012: The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2012 of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC. Eur Heart J 2012;33(14):1787-847. [PMID:22611136]
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